Pre & Post operative Conditions

Colles Fracture

It is a complete fracture of the radius bone of the forearm close to the wrist resulting in an upward (posterior) displacement of the radius and obvious deformity. It is commonly called a “broken wrist” in spite of the fact that the distal radius is the location of the fracture, not the carpal bones of the wrist.

The clinical presentation of Colles fracture is commonly described as a dinner fork deformity. A distal fracture of the radius causes posterior displacement of the distal fragment, causing the forearm to be angled posteriorly just proximal to the wrist. With the hand displaying its normal forward arch, the patient’s forearm and hand resemble the curvature of a dinner fork.

“Dinner Fork” Deformity History of fall on an outstretched hand Dorsal wrist pain, Swelling of the wrist, Increased angulation of the distal radius, Inability to grasp object.

Radial head excision

It is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the radial head (the smaller bone of the forearm that makes up the elbow joint) after severe damage following trauma or as a result of degenerative changes associated with arthritis. Physiotherapy after radial head excision is crucial to help achieve the return of full or near to full function in the affected elbow joint.

Shoulder fractures

Shoulder fractures involve at least one of three bones in the shoulder: the scapula (shoulder blade), clavicle (collarbone), or humerus (upper arm bone). All three types of fractures can cause shoulder pain, swelling, tenderness, and limit the shoulder’s range of motion, but there are also significant differences.The clavicle (collarbone) is a long, thin bone that begins at the base of the neck and extends out to the shoulder. Clavicle fractures can happen at any age, from newborns to the elderly.

Types and Symptoms:

Normally, these fractures occur because of a fall, direct hit, contact sport (such as hockey or football), or a motor vehicle accident. Bruising, swelling, and pain over the clavicle region are common symptoms. A bump may also form over the site of injury due to hematoma (swelling confined to a specific area) or deformity of the bone. When the clavicle is fractured, patients typically have difficulty raising the arm.

Proximal humerus fracture

It is a fracture to top of the humerus bone, either at or just below the humeral head. The humeral head is often referred to as the ball that rests in the shoulder’s socket. Proximal humerus fractures are common. They can occur at any age, but the risk increases with age and osteoporosis. There are two other types of humerus fractures. These fractures do not affect the shoulder joint as much as a proximal humerus fracture.

A humeral shaft fracture affects the middle portion of the humerus bone. A distal humerus fracture affects the bottom end of the humerus, near the elbow joint.

Scapula fractures

These are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all fractures and only 3% to 5% of fractures of the shoulder.1 They are most commonly seen in men between 25 and 45 years of age

A scapular fracture may result from a contact sport, such as football, or a traumatic event, such as an automobile accident. Given the impact needed for the scapula to fracture, a person with this type of injury typically has sustained other damage, such as nerve injuries, rib fractures, or lung injuries.

Patella fracture

It is a break in your kneecap, the bone that covers your knee joint. It’s usually caused by a traumatic injury, such as a fall or a blow to your kneecap. A patella fracture can be simple or complex. Some fractures require surgery to repair. Recovery can be long, and side effects are common.

Stable patella fracture: In a stable fracture, also called a “nondisplaced” fracture, the broken pieces of your bone remain essentially in the right place. They may still be connected to each other, or they may be separated by a millimeter or two. This type of fracture usually heals well without surgery. If your healthcare provider determines that you don’t need surgery, they will immobilize your knee in extension with either a knee immobilizer, a hinged knee brace or a cast. You’ll be allowed to bear as much weight as you’re comfortable.

Displaced patella fracture: In a displaced fracture, your broken bone pieces have been displaced from their correct position and don’t line up with each other as they should. These pieces often need to be fixed with surgery in order to heal and allow your knee to function properly.

Transverse patella fracture: A transverse fracture is a fracture where your patella breaks into two pieces. These breaks are often fixed with surgery. Various surgical techniques can be used to fix these injuries. Your surgeon will decide which is best for you.

Comminuted patella fracture: In a comminuted fracture, your bone has shattered into three or more pieces. A comminuted fracture can be stable or unstable. When a comminuted fracture is unstable, some of your bone pieces may be too small to reconnect and may need to be removed in surgery.

Open patella fracture: In an open fracture, your skin over your bone has been broken. Either your bone pieces themselves have penetrated through your skin, or something has penetrated your knee from the outside. An open fracture requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and surgery to thoroughly clean the wound. Open fractures tend to have a higher rate of infection, so it’s important to seek urgent medical treatment. Your surgeon will decide which surgical treatment will best fix your fracture

ACL reconstruction

a major ligament in your knee. ACL injuries most commonly occur during sports that involve sudden stops and changes in direction — such as soccer, football, basketball and volleyball.

Most ACL injuries happen during sports and fitness activities that can put stress on the knee:

-Suddenly slowing down and changing direction (cutting)

-Pivoting with your foot firmly planted

-Landing from a jump incorrectly

-Stopping suddenly

-Receiving a direct blow to the knee.

A meniscal repair is a surgical procedure to repair a torn meniscus via keyhole surgery. It is a minimally invasive procedure often undergone as an outpatient.  Factors affecting success include tear age, location and pattern, age of the patient, as well as any associated injuries. The meniscus is divided into three zones: the red-red, the red-white and the white-white. The zones are divided by vascularization and thus healing potential.The red-red zone is the peripheral zone of the meniscus. It is very good vascularized and has a good healing rate.

Clinical Presentation

Joint line tenderness and effusion.

Symptoms are frequently worsened by flexing and loading the knee, activities such as squatting and kneeling are poorly tolerated.

Complaints of ‘clicking’, ‘locking’ and ‘giving way’ are common.

Rotator Cuff Repair

This surgical procedure is used to repair a torn supraspinatus tendon, one of the tendons that forms the rotator cuff of the shoulder. During this procedure, the tendon is reattached firmly to the head of the humerus.

Hip joint arthropathy

During hip replacement, a surgeon removes the damaged sections of the hip joint and replaces them with parts usually constructed of metal, ceramic and very hard plastic. This artificial joint (prosthesis) helps reduce pain and improve function.

Also called total hip arthroplasty, hip replacement surgery might be an option if hip pain interferes with daily activities and nonsurgical treatments haven’t helped or are no longer effective. Arthritis damage is the most common reason to need hip replacement.

Total knee replacement

Knee replacement, also called knee arthroplasty or total knee replacement, is a surgical procedure to resurface a knee damaged by arthritis. Metal and plastic parts are used to cap the ends of the bones that form the knee joint, along with the kneecap. This surgery may be considered for someone who has severe arthritis or a severe knee injury

The goal of knee replacement surgery is to resurface the parts of the knee joint that have been damaged and to relieve knee pain that cannot be controlled by other treatments.

Shoulder arthroplasty

The most common indication for an  shoulder arthroplasty is pain that has not responded well to conservative management or a severe fracture. Depending upon the mechanism of dysfunction or injury a shoulder arthroplasty can either be a partial or total replacement.